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Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China on the Twentieth Anniversary of the Treaty of Good Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, 28 June 2021

On the eve of the twentieth anniversary of the Treaty of Good Neighbourliness and Friendly Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, signed on 16 July 2001, the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, hereinafter referred to as the Parties, in order to continue the dynamic development of comprehensive partnership and strategic interaction in a new era, in accordance with the spirit and letter of the Treaty, declare as follows:


The Treaty organically combined the historical experience of the development of the Russian-Chinese relations and the generally accepted norms of international law. This basic policy document created the legal framework for the long-term and stable development of the Russian-Chinese comprehensive partnership and strategic interaction in the twenty-first century.

Guided by the Treaty, Russia and China have formed a model of a new type of interstate relations that meets the fundamental national interests of the two countries and aspirations of their peoples, which also plays an important role in promoting a multipolar world order and ensuring international and regional security and stability. Twenty years of experience of dynamic and comprehensive development of the Russian-Chinese cooperation show that the Treaty successfully reflects the realities of the international environment that is undergoing unprecedented change.

Today, when the largest pandemic in this century is making more acute global competition, the provisions of the Treaty not only remain relevant, but also are gaining a new meaning and continue to serve as a solid support for Russian-Chinese relations. The Heads of State of Russia and China appreciate the historic and practical importance of the Treaty and agree to extend it in accordance with Article 25.


The Russian-Chinese relations have reached the highest level in their history. They are mature, constructive and sustainable and promote the development and prosperity of the two countries and the well-being of their peoples, representing a model of harmonious coexistence of the States and mutually beneficial cooperation between them.

Russia is interested in a stable and prosperous China and China is interested in a strong and successful Russia. Considering each other as priority partners, the Parties, guided by the Treaty, will further strengthen coordination and cooperation in all fields, including political, security, military, trade and economic, humanitarian and international spheres. Having defined strategic support and mutual assistance, integration, a focus on innovation, common advantage and mutual benefit as benchmarks, they will continue developing their comprehensive partnership and strategic interaction in the new era.

The Russian-Chinese relations are based on equality, deep mutual trust, commitment to international law, support in defending each other's core interests, the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity. While not being a military and political alliance, such as those formed during the Cold War, the Russian-Chinese relations exceed this form of interstate interaction. They are not opportunistic, are free of ideologisation, involve comprehensive consideration of the partner's interests and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, they are self-sufficient and not directed against third countries, they display international relations of a new type.

Russia and China have completely resolved the border issue inherited from history and now the two countries have no mutual territorial claims. The Parties are determined to turn the common border into a belt of eternal peace and friendship handed down from generation to generation, which will be the cornerstone of our interstate relations.


Guided by Article10 of the Treaty, the Parties will continue to develop an intensive dialogue at the top and high levels, which is an essential tool for the promotion of the whole spectrum of Russian-Chinese relations.

The Parties will continue to use leaders' diplomacy which plays a leading role in ensuring a progressive deepening of the bilateral strategic partnership, including mutual visits, meetings on the margins of international forums, and other contacts between Heads of State. They will continue to improve the mechanism of regular meetings between the Heads of Governments, the work of the intergovernmental commissions at the level of deputy prime ministers, the various formats of interregional cooperation as key instruments for coordinating and expanding bilateral practical and humanitarian cooperation; develop contacts between the heads of the highest legislative bodies, exchanges and dialogue through interparliamentary commission, specialized committees and commissions, and deputy friendship groups; maintain a direct dialogue between the Presidential Executive Office of the Russian Federation and apparatus of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in order to coordinate and harmonize matters relating to contacts between the Heads of State and implementation of the agreements reached between them; cooperate actively, through consultations of the high representatives for strategic security and for public security, justice, and law enforcement, on global, regional and national security and on addressing traditional and emerging challenges and threats.


In accordance with the principles set forth in Article7 of the Treaty, Russian-Chinese military and military technology cooperation is developing in a spirit of comprehensive partnership and strategic cooperation and is not directed against third countries. The Parties adhere strictly to agreements on the mutual reduction of armed forces in the State border areas and on building confidence in the military field. Russia and China successfully cooperate on multilateral forums in the framework of the SCO and ADMM-Plus to ensure global and regional security.

The Parties intend to continue deepening interaction between the armed forces by maintaining a regular dialogue between the heads of defence agencies, increasing the number and scope of joint exercises, exchanges between military districts, services and branches of the armed forces, and improving the legal framework and cooperation in the field of military training.


Russian-Chinese economic cooperation is in conformity with the fundamental interests of the two countries and contributes to the well-being of their citizens. Welcoming the achievements of practical cooperation in recent years and guided by Articles16 and17 of the Treaty, the Parties intend to consistently expand the scope and ensure the genuinely strategic nature of such interaction, focus on providing favourable conditions for it, bearing in mind primarily each other's interests and acting on the basis of the principle of mutual benefit, in accordance with national legislation and each Party's international commitments. To this end, the Parties have agreed:

to increase the volume of bilateral trade, including by developing long-term investment cooperation and supporting business entities in implementing investment projects, creating a stable business environment, strengthening cooperation in the field of anti-monopoly and competition policy, and identifying new points of economic growth;

to strengthen strategic and comprehensive energy cooperation, implement existing and reach meaningful new agreements on the supply and processing of hydrocarbons, peaceful use of nuclear energy, and on other areas of cooperation;

to deepen trust-based financial interaction, support the expansion of mutual payments in national currencies in bilateral trade, investment and lending, facilitate non-stop payments between economic entities, and encourage access to each other's capital markets of investors and issuers of the two countries;

to strengthen cooperation in the field of industry, information and communication technologies, space and aviation;

to enhance cooperation in the field of scientific and technological innovations, maintain mutually-beneficial cooperation of the Parties in fundamental science, high technologies, promote bilateral exchanges of experts, expand innovative cooperation;

to ensure effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights;

to increase interaction in agriculture, facilitate mutual access of agricultural products to the markets of the Parties, develop investment cooperation in agro-industry;

to promote an early post-epidemic recovery of transport links, deepen cooperation in the field of transport, resolve cross-border and transit transportation issues on the basis of equal rights and for the mutual benefit, promote the development and facilitation of bilateral transportation procedures, modernize and build points of entry and transport infrastructure along the common border, deepen customs cooperation, as well as facilitate the customs procedures by ensuring the transparency and security of international trade, enhance interaction along the border rivers;

to strengthen cooperation on the use of the Northern Sea Route on the principles of mutual benefit, respect for and consideration of littoral State’s interests, promote sustainable development of the Arctic; and

to enhance interregional ties.


The Parties reaffirmed their commitment to implementing the agreements reached between the leaders of Russia and China to create the Greater Eurasian Partnership in a parallel and coordinated manner, as well as to developing the One Belt One Road initiative. The Parties noted the importance of the Eurasian Economic Union and One Belt One Road construction plans and their interrelation to ensure continuous and sustainable economic growth in the Eurasian Macro-Region, as well as the importance of enhancing regional and economic integration, maintaining peace in the region and developing the region itself.


The Parties will continue to pay special attention to the development of humanitarian exchanges that play an important role in deepening the mutual understanding and passing the traditions of good-neighbourliness and friendship between the peoples of Russia and China from one generation to the next. To this end, the Parties have agreed:

to expand bilateral education, inter-university and academic ties, encourage the learning and teaching of the Russian language in the People's Republic of China and the Chinese language in the Russian Federation;

to deepen interaction in cultural exchanges and enhance the role of cultural centres, friendship societies and public organizations, strengthen cooperation among artistic groups, theatres, museums and other cultural organizations of both countries, develop dialogue on the preservation, restoration and use of historic and religious sites and historic and cultural monuments, pay special attention to military and memorial sites, strengthen the legal framework for cooperation in this area;

to promote secure, comprehensive and planned recovery and harmonious development of tourist exchanges between the two countries and improve the quality of tourist services with due consideration of the changing epidemiological situation;

to deepen cooperation between the two countries on archival affairs;

based on the principles of mutual trust and benefit, to promote cooperation in health care and health sciences, expand interaction in ensuring public health and epidemiological well-being by paying special attention to the prevention of and response to the spread of infectious diseases, the development of diagnostics, drugs and vaccines;

to enhance mutually beneficial cooperation in physical culture and sports, oppose the politicization of sports on the international arena, support China's hosting of the 2022 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing;

to promote cooperation in the field of ecology and environmental protection, early notification and exchange of information concerning transboundary environmental emergencies, in the field of rational use and protection of transboundary water bodies, biodiversity conservation and establishment of specially protected natural territories, solid waste management; to enhance exchanges concerning environmental protection and response to climate change within the UN,BRICS, SCO and other multilateral formats;

to strengthen interaction on media policy, mutual broadcasting of television programs; to increase cooperation between print, electronic, and new media;

to continue to implement joint projects in book publishing, inter alia, to translate works of Russian classical and modern literature into Chinese and works of Chinese classical and modern literature into Russian and to publish them;

to help deepen mutual exchanges, expand dialogue between the two countries’ think tanks, and conduct joint research;

to strengthen friendly ties between the young people in Russia and China, and to support the development of professional exchanges among young entrepreneurs.


The world is facing turbulence, with markedly increased instability and uncertainty. Humanity has been afflicted by a growing lack of governability and trust in international affairs, increased disparities in development and the rise in the potential for conflict. Ensuring common security and promoting sustainable development remain crucial challenges. Some states encourage rivalry and confrontation between major powers in a “zero sum game”. Force is becoming an increasingly important factor in international relations. Negative factors also include: attempts of certain countries to divide the world on ideological grounds, brazen interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states, unilateral arbitrary sanctions, and undermining of the legal framework of the international relations system, including in the area of arms control. These actions complicate the process of resolving international conflicts and problems. The threats of terrorism, extremism and separatism are increasing, especially in the territories of the neighboring states and regions.

Russia and China share a common understanding of the need to form a more equitable democratic world order. To this end, the Parties should strengthen foreign policy coordination, uphold common interests on the global stage, and maintain global and regional balance of power. As global turbulence intensifies, the relevance of Russian-Chinese strategic cooperation increases.

The Parties will remain committed to genuine multilateralism, will jointly defend the international system with the UN playing a central coordinating role and a world order based on international law, will stand for the principles of equality and mutual benefit, non-interference in the internal affairs of sovereign states, peaceful settlement of disputes, rejection of the use of unilateral coercive measures that contravene the principles of international law and the UN Charter. The Parties will resist attempts to replace universally agreed international legal instruments and mechanisms with non-inclusive formats whereby non-consensual methods of resolving international problems are elaborated; and will resist attempts to unleash political struggle in multilateral structures.

The Parties note that the spread of the newCOVID-19 coronavirus infection has become an international factor with a long-term impact on the world's economic, social and political processes and the entire system of inter-State relations, and invite all countries to set aside their differences, demonstrate genuine humanism and solidarity, strengthen cooperation and relinquish attempts to use the problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic for geopolitical purposes. The Parties support the central coordinating role of the World Health Organization in the fight against the pandemic.

Heads of States unanimously believe that the initiative to convene a summit of the UN Security Council permanent Member States proposed by the Russian Party is of great practical importance and should serve as a basis for starting a serious and direct conversation between the leaders of the five founding powers of the UN that bear special responsibility for maintaining international peace and security concerning the principles of multilateral cooperation and ways to address the most critical problems faced by humanity.

The Russian Party notes the positive significance of the China-proposed concept of building a community of shared future for humanity to enhance the solidarity of the world community and unite the efforts against common challenges. The Chinese Party notes the positive significance of the efforts of the Russian Party to create a fair multipolar system of international relations. The Parties believe that these doctrinal ideas will contribute to strengthening international peace and security, implementing the UN’s 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and ensuring progressive development and prosperity of the entire humankind.

The Parties urge States and associations of States to refrain from using unilateral coercive measures (including extraterritorial ones) that impede the full implementation of sustainable socio-economic development goals, especially in developing countries, and have an adverse humanitarian impact on the civil population.

The Parties intend to continue their joint efforts to promote the use by the UN human rights mechanisms of an even-handed approach to systemic advancement of human rights and counter politicization of the international human rights agenda, the policy of double standards and the use of the human rights issues as a tool to interfere in the internal affairs of sovereign States.

The Parties consider that nuclear States have a particular responsibility to maintain international security and global strategic stability and should therefore address existing concerns through dialogue and consultations, increase mutual trust, strengthen general security and avoid misunderstandings and erroneous strategic decisions that could exacerbate tensions and cause a military confrontation. The Parties are firmly convinced that nuclear war has no winners and should never be unleashed. Given the risks of nuclear escalation, we should also do our utmost to prevent any armed conflicts between any States with military nuclear capabilities.

Russia and China reaffirm their commitment to their obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and will continue coordinating their efforts with a view to preserving and strengthening the Treaty for the benefit of international peace and security.

The Parties note that global and regional security and stability are gravely affected by the US decision to withdraw from several crucial international arms control agreements. The Parties express their concern over the implementation of the US plans to develop its global missile defence system and the deployment of its elements in various parts of the world, coupled with the building of the capacity of high-precision non-nuclear weapons capable of attaining strategic objectives. Such actions jeopardize international and regional security and global strategic stability.

The Parties underline that after withdrawing from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, the United States has accelerated its research and development of land-based intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles. The US Party seeks to deploy them in the Asia-Pacific and European regions, thus aggravating tensions and increasing mutual distrust. The risks to international and regional security are on the rise, while the international arms control and non-proliferation system is weakening, which undermines global strategic stability. Russia and China call upon the United States and relevant stakeholders to show restraint and positively react to the Russia-sponsored initiative to impose a moratorium on deployment of intermediate-and shorter-range ground-based missiles. The Parties intend to maintain a close dialogue and coordinate their positions on the issue.

The Parties stand against actions of certain Western countries to transform outer space into a sphere of military confrontation and reiterate the need to exert all possible efforts to prevent an arms race in outer space and space weaponization, and its transformation into an arena for military confrontation and to ensure the safety of space activities and preserve outer space for peaceful purposes. The Parties reaffirm the urgency of elaboration of a legally binding multilateral instrument that provides solid guarantees for the prevention of an arms race in outer space and placement of weapons in outer space, on the basis of the Russia-China draft treaty on the prevention of the placement of weapons in outer space, the threat or use of force against outer space objects. They encourage all States, especially space-faring nations, to assume a political commitment not to be the first to place weapons in outer space. The Parties will continue their joint efforts to promote the peaceful use of outer space in the interests of more effective advancement of economic development and social progress.

The Parties reaffirm their commitment to the goals and objectives of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction and call upon the States Parties to the Convention to hold regular consultations and cooperate in addressing any issues related to its implementation on the basis of consensus and strictly within the mechanisms provided for in the Convention.

The Parties stress the importance of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction as a pillar of the international security system, support the compliance with and strengthening of the Convention, including through the adoption of a legally binding protocol to the Convention with an efficient verification mechanism, call upon the States Parties to the Convention to refrain from preventing negotiations on the mentioned protocol and increase transparency of their military biological research conducted in their countries and abroad, and encourage the States Parties to the Convention to actively cooperate with each other, including via consultations, in addressing any issues related to the implementation of the Convention.

With a view to countering the threat of chemical and biological terrorism, the Parties underline the need for the launch of multilateral negotiations on an international convention on the suppression of acts of chemical and biological terrorism, including at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva.

The Parties share the understanding that multilateral interaction in the field of non-proliferation and export controls should not target certain States or prevent the legitimate economic and scientific and technical cooperation between countries. The Parties intend to strongly counter discriminatory approaches in this field and the use of export control tools as a lever for imposing political pressure or sanctions.

The Parties reaffirm their commitment to strengthen international information security both at bilateral and multilateral levels, and they will further contribute to establishing a global international information security system based on such principles as prevention of conflicts in information space and promotion of the use of information and communication technologies for peaceful purposes. In this context, they underline the applicability of international law, in particular the UN Charter, to information space, however, a common understanding on how it is used given the specifics of information and communication technologies is required, express their support for the work being done within the UN to elaborate new rules, norms and principles of responsible behaviour of States in information space and reiterate the key role of the UN in countering threats in the field of international information security.

The Parties emphasize the need to ensure an ongoing and continuous specialized negotiation process under the aegis of the United Nations within the new UN Open-Ended Working Group 2021–2025, set up at the initiative of Russia with active support from the People's Republic of China.

Russia and China strongly support the work of the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Committee of Experts established under UN General Assembly resolutions 74/247 and 75/282, promote the early adoption of a comprehensive UN convention on combating the use of information and communication technologies for criminal purposes, and call on all parties to engage constructively in negotiations.

The Parties underscore their unity on issues related to Internet governance, which include ensuring that all States have equal rights to participate in global-network governance, increasing their role in this process and preserving the sovereign right of States to regulate the national segment of the Internet. Russia and China emphasize the need to enhance the role of the International Telecommunication Union and strengthen the representation of the two countries in its governing bodies.

Russia supports the Global Initiative on Data Security launched by China, and both Parties intend to continue promoting the development of possible joint measures to counter threats to international information security, including data security, within the UN Open-Ended Working Group 2021–2025.The Parties are determined to continue deepening bilateral cooperation on the basis of the joint statement of the President of the Russian Federation and the President of the People's Republic of China on cooperation in the development of information space of 25 June 2016 and the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in Ensuring International Information Security of 8 May 2015.

The Parties will continue to mutually support one another's efforts to combat terrorism and extremism and counter the policy of double standards in combating terrorism. They will further strengthen cooperation to counter the spread of terrorist and extremist ideologies, recruitment activities, and the phenomenon of relocating foreign terrorist fighters, suppress material and financial support to terrorist organizations, combat incitement to terrorism and investigate terrorist crimes.The Parties will continue to jointly advocate for an open, transparent, inclusive, and non-discriminatory multilateral trading system, with the World Trade Organization playing a central role, and to take coordinated action to ensure its effective and uninterrupted functioning.The Parties will continue to strengthen international cooperation to jointly address global challenges, including climate change and biodiversity conservation.The Parties call for taking concerted region-wide efforts to build an equal and indivisible security system in the Asia-Pacific region based on the principles of non-interference in the internal affairs of sovereign States, peaceful settlement of disputes, and non-use of force or threat of force, and establishing truly constructive non-conflict interaction to find effective pathways for regional development. The Parties will continue to step up cooperation to strengthen the SCO, BRICS, RIC, G20 and other multilateral mechanisms as responsible and influential actors contributing to the process of shaping a more equitable and representative world order to ensure equal, indivisible, comprehensive, co-operative and sustainable security and stable economic development.


The Parties, guided by the Treaty and adhering to the principles set forth therein, will develop bilateral relations in keeping with the spirit of friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation passed down from generation to generation. They appeal to the international community to move forward together and to protect and nurture common values such as peace, development, justice, democracy, and freedom.


28 June 2021




22.06.2022 - Press release on threats to global food security and Ukrainian grain supplies to international markets

As far as the blockage of Ukrainian grain shipments by sea is concerned, we emphasise that Russia has never hindered the export of grain from Ukrainian Black Sea ports. In reality, safe navigation in Ukrainian territorial waters and the use of ports are currently impossible due to the high level of danger posed by mines and threat of shelling created by Kiev.

14.06.2022 - Foreign Ministry Statement on personal sanctions on UK citizens in the media and the defence lobby

In response to the British government’s anti-Russia actions to impose personal sanctions on our country’s leading journalists and heads of defence companies,Russiahas included senior executives and correspondents from a number of major British media, as well as representatives of the command of the armed forces, the defence industry, and theUKdefence lobby on the Russian “stop list.”

14.06.2022 - Embassy comment on the recent events in Donbass, 14 June 2022

Over the weekend we witnessed a dramatic increase in Ukrainian forces shelling of the city of Donetsk. The Mayor of Donetsk, Mr Alexey Kulemzin, has reported that on 13 June indiscriminate artillery strikes of the city centre lasted over 6 hours, killing at least 5 and wounding 33 civilians. The intensity of fire, with over 700 rockets and shells falling over the peaceful city and other towns and villages of the Donetsk People’s Republic, amounts to a full-fledged and purposeful military operation. In the recent days, bombardments covered a number of purely civilian areas and targets, including Vishnevskiy maternity hospital and Mayskiy market. Deliberate targeting and shelling of civilian objects is a war crime.

01.06.2022 - Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s remarks and answers to questions following a meeting of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Riyadh, June 1, 2022

The main conclusion from the assessment of the geopolitical situation is that one group of countries must not be allowed to establish domination in the world. Unfortunately, our Western partners have made this an absolute priority. They are openly announcing the need for a unipolar world order that they call “a rules-based order.” But it is the West that is drafting these rules (and they do not hide this). In their opinion, others do not have this right.

29.05.2022 - Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s interview with French TV channel TF1, Moscow, May 29, 2022

Sergey Lavrov: Unlike our Western colleagues, we are not chasing after the external effects. Nor do we regard the international actions we take as aimed at winning someone’s approval or achieving success, as you said. We are doing what we are forced to do. We are defending people and the Russian language, which has been exposed to direct discrimination and aggression by the Poroshenko and Zelensky regimes in Ukraine. We are defending Ukraine from nazification, which has persisted there for years, with the West’s direct connivance.

27.05.2022 - Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s remarks at the 38th meeting of the Foreign Ministry’s Council of the Heads of Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation, Moscow, May 27, 2022

Colleagues, We are holding a regular meeting of the Foreign Ministry’s Council of the Heads of Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation. The meeting is taking place against the background of the special military operation in Ukraine, which is being conducted in connection with the tasks set by President of Russia Vladimir Putin, tasks involving the protection of civilians, the elimination of the Ukraine-posed security threats to the Russian Federation, and the denazification of this kindred country whose people have suffered and continue to suffer at the hands of a regime which encourages extreme neo-Nazi sentiments and practices.

23.05.2022 - Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s remarks and answers to questions as part of the 100 Questions for the Leader project at the Yevgeny Primakov School, Moscow, May 23, 2022

I am glad to see you. My visits here are not frequent, but they are regular. And each time, I feel energised. Tomorrow, the eleven-formers will have to choose their path in life. It will not be long before the rest of you (the eight- to ten-formers) will also find yourselves at the same threshold. It is important to understand the substance of your life, the future substance of our society’s life within the framework of the professional trends that will be a factor in your employment and careers. In addition to my meetings with students at schools, I regularly meet with MGIMO students. They keep those engaging in practical politics on their toes. Policy-making should be approached in such a way as to enable our successors to see prospects and understand that the course mapped by their predecessors meets their interests.

20.05.2022 - Embassy comment on recent accusations against Russia of creating a threat of a global food crisis

Recent accusations against Russia of creating a threat of a global food crisis by not letting cargo ships with grain out of Odessa and other Ukrainian ports have nothing to do with reality. The situation in the Black Sea is at the centre of attention of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), headquartered here in London.

19.05.2022 - Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Maria Zakharova’s comment on "Russian threat to food security"

Representatives of the collective West members are tripping over each other as they scramble to accuse Russia of undermining global food security. The G7 has issued a special statement in this regard. To be sure, we responded.

18.05.2022 - Foreign Ministry Statement on the withdrawal of the Russian Federation from the Council of the Baltic Sea States

The situation at the Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) has been deteriorating. The NATO and EU members of the CBSS have turned their backs on equitable dialogue and the principles upon which this regional Baltic organisation was built, and have consistently turned it into an anti-Russia political tool. Unlawful and discriminatory decisions are approved in violation of the consensus rule. Russia has been “excluded” from participating in CBSS work and projects. Belarus’ observer status with the CBSS has been “suspended.”

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